How is product data constructed in Magento (product attributes, inventory, price, image, etc.?)
Products are constructed using specific attributes, which are text fields within the database. You can have a text field, text area, dropdown, and many more input types.
Inventory is held within the individual product (SKU as the unique identifier). You can manage the product stock qty, minimum/maximum amount of inventory that can be purchased at one time, backorders, and quantity steps/increments.
Prices are held within individual simple products. You have group pricing for specific customer groups, special prices (for sales discounts per product), tier pricing for step pricing (buy 10 get $1 off each), and add tax rules.
Images are held per product. You can add many images for small, base, and thumbnail images.