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Multi-accounting fraud has emerged as a formidable challenge in the world of ecommerce, threatening the integrity and financial health of online businesses everywhere.

This article delves into the mechanics of multi-accounting fraud, offering a clear understanding of its workings and implications. More importantly, it provides practical, actionable strategies to help businesses fortify their defenses, ensuring a safer, more trustworthy online marketplace for all.

What is Multi-Account Fraud?

Multi-account fraud in ecommerce is a deceptive practice where individuals or entities create numerous accounts to exploit system vulnerabilities for unfair gain. This fraud can manifest in various forms, such as taking advantage of promotional offers multiple times, skewing product reviews, or bypassing account bans.

Multi-account fraud not only causes financial losses for businesses but also distorts market dynamics and erodes customer trust. Understanding and identifying this fraudulent behavior is crucial for ecommerce platforms, as it enables them to implement effective countermeasures, safeguarding their operations and maintaining a fair, trustworthy environment for genuine users.

Multi-Account Fraud Example

An example of multi-account fraud in ecommerce can be seen in the exploitation of promotional offers. Imagine an online retailer launching a special promotion where new customers receive a significant discount on their first purchase. A fraudster, aiming to take undue advantage of this promotional offer, creates multiple fake accounts. They use different email addresses and possibly altered personal details to appear as unique customers to the retailer's system. Each of these accounts is then used to make purchases, availing of the first-time customer discount repeatedly.

This fraudulent activity works because the retailer's system is designed to recognize and reward new customers, not to detect and differentiate between genuine new customers and multiple accounts created by the same individual. The fraudster benefits by repeatedly receiving discounts meant for first-time customers, leading to financial losses for the retailer.

To combat promo abuse, companies are tightening their promotional strategies, ensuring that offers meant to attract genuine new users are not exploited by fraudsters using multiple accounts. This involves a combination of behavioral analysis, transaction monitoring, and sometimes even limiting the accessibility of promotions based on risk profiles.

3 Multi-Account Fraud Methods

In this section, I will share with you a number of iterations for multi-account fraud, the execution involved, and strategy items to consider for each. 

1. Creating multiple accounts

Fraudsters systematically generate numerous fake accounts on an ecommerce platform. They use varied email addresses, possibly different IP addresses, and sometimes altered personal information to make each account appear unique and legitimate. This process might involve automated tools or scripts to efficiently create these accounts at scale.

The primary goal is to exploit system loopholes, such as availing repeated discounts, manipulating product reviews, or circumventing purchase limits.

2. Gnoming

The multi-account fraud method known as "gnoming" involves individuals creating and operating multiple accounts under different identities in online platforms, particularly in gambling or betting sites. The purpose is to exploit sign-up bonuses, free bets, or other promotional offers that are typically limited to one per customer.

By using these multiple accounts, the fraudster can place several bets on the same event, manipulating the system to ensure a profit regardless of the outcome.

3. Using stolen accounts

The multi-account fraud method involving compromised or hacked accounts is a malicious tactic where fraudsters gain unauthorized access to existing user accounts on ecommerce platforms. These accounts are typically breached through methods like phishing, password cracking, or exploiting security vulnerabilities.

Once inside, the fraudster uses these hijacked accounts to conduct unauthorized transactions, such as making purchases or transferring funds.

How to Prevent Multi-Account Fraud

So far, we have covered at great length how dynamic and crafty fraudsters can be. Let's shift gears and get into covering action items that your organization can implement today to defend against these tactics and mitigate fraud losses proactively.  

Ecommerce businesses can adopt several strategies to protect themselves against multi-account fraud, each addressing different aspects of this complex issue:

Advanced User Verification

Implementing robust verification processes for new accounts can significantly reduce fraudulent account creation. This can include two-factor authentication (2FA), requiring verification through a phone number, or using biometric data.

These methods make it more difficult for fraudsters to create multiple accounts as they would need access to multiple unique verification tools.

Behavioral Analysis and Machine Learning

Utilizing machine learning algorithms to analyze user behavior patterns can help in identifying suspicious activities. These systems can detect anomalies like rapid account creation, unusual purchasing patterns, or login attempts from varying locations, which are indicative of fraudulent activities.

Over time, these algorithms become more adept at identifying potential fraud, adapting to new tactics used by fraudsters.

IP Address and Device Fingerprinting

Tracking and analyzing IP addresses and device fingerprints (unique identifiers for a device based on its specific configuration, settings, and usage patterns) can help identify multiple accounts originating from the same source.

This method can flag accounts that are created from the same IP address or device, which is a common red flag for multi-account fraud.

Limiting Promotions and Offers

Restricting the frequency and magnitude of promotional offers can reduce the incentives for fraudsters to create multiple accounts. This might include setting limits on the number of times a promotion can be used from a single IP address or device, or tightening the criteria for eligibility for such offers.

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Collaboration and Information Sharing

Ecommerce platforms can benefit from collaborating with other businesses and anti-fraud networks to share information about known fraudsters and their tactics. This collective approach can help in quickly identifying and responding to new fraud methods.

Regular Audits and Updates

Regularly auditing the security systems and updating them to address new threats is crucial. This includes keeping software up-to-date, patching known vulnerabilities, and continuously reviewing and improving fraud detection protocols.

By implementing these strategies, ecommerce businesses can create a more secure environment, reducing the risk of multi-account fraud and protecting both their interests and those of their genuine customers.

What industries are affected by multi-account fraud?

Multi-account fraud, a pervasive issue in the digital world, poses significant challenges across various sectors, from ecommerce to online gaming. Multi-account fraud affects a wide range of industries, each experiencing unique challenges and impacts:

Ecommerce and Retail

Online retailers frequently encounter multi-account fraud in the form of individuals exploiting promotional offers, manipulating product reviews, or engaging in return fraud.

Banking and Financial Services

In this sector, fraudsters create multiple accounts for money laundering, credit card fraud, or to bypass checks for loan or account applications.

Online Gaming and Gambling

These platforms often face issues with users creating multiple accounts to abuse sign-up bonuses, manipulate games, or engage in betting fraud.

Social Media and Online Communities

On social media platforms individuals create numerous social media accounts to manipulate information or spread fake reviews, significantly skewing public perception and harming businesses.


In telecom, fraud can involve exploiting sign-up incentives or selling accounts with special offers to others.

Subscription Services

Streaming, software-as-a-service (SaaS), and other subscription-based models see multi-account fraud in the form of sharing or selling discounted or trial accounts.

Travel and Hospitality

This industry faces issues with loyalty program fraud, where individuals create multiple accounts to accumulate and misuse rewards.

Each of these industries must develop tailored strategies to combat multi-account fraud, considering their specific vulnerabilities and the nature of their services.

How effective is multi-factor authentication?

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is highly effective in enhancing security, particularly against unauthorized access and identity theft. Its effectiveness lies in requiring multiple forms of verification before granting access, making it significantly more challenging for unauthorized users to gain entry. Here's a breakdown of its effectiveness:

Increased Security Layer

By requiring additional credentials beyond just a password, MFA adds a critical layer of security. Even if a password is compromised, the attacker still needs the second factor, which is often something the legitimate user possesses (like a phone) or a biometric trait (like a fingerprint).

Reduction in Phishing Success

MFA can significantly reduce the success rate of phishing attacks. Even if a user is tricked into revealing their password, the attacker usually can't bypass the second authentication factor, thereby protecting the account.

Deterrent for Attackers

The presence of MFA can deter potential attackers. Knowing that a system requires multiple authentication steps makes it less appealing as a target, as the effort and risk of failure increase.

Compliance and Trust

MFA helps businesses comply with various data protection regulations and standards. It also boosts customer trust, as users feel more secure knowing that their accounts have an added layer of protection.

However, it's important to note that MFA is not infallible. Methods like SMS-based authentication can be vulnerable to SIM swapping attacks, and hardware tokens can be lost or stolen. MFA can sometimes be bypassed through sophisticated social engineering or technical attacks. While MFA significantly enhances security, it should be part of a comprehensive, layered security approach.

How are multiple accounts detected?

Detecting multiple accounts, especially when created fraudulently, involves a combination of technological tools and analytical techniques. Here are some key methods used:

IP Address Tracking

Monitoring IP addresses is a common way to detect multiple accounts. If numerous accounts are created or accessed from the same IP address, it's a red flag that they may be controlled by the same individual or group.

Device Fingerprinting

This technique involves identifying unique characteristics of the devices used to create or access accounts, such as the operating system, browser type, and hardware configuration. Accounts linked to the same device fingerprint can indicate multiple account creation.

Behavioral Analysis

Analyzing user behavior patterns can reveal multiple account fraud. For instance, if several accounts exhibit similar purchasing patterns, login times, or navigation paths, it could suggest they are controlled by the same entity.

Email Analysis

Checking the email addresses used to register accounts can also be revealing. Fraudsters often use variations of the same email address or disposable email services to create multiple accounts.

Biometric Verification

Some advanced systems use biometrics (like facial recognition or fingerprints) for account verification. Multiple accounts linked to the same biometric data can be easily flagged.

Machine Learning and AI

Artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms can be trained to detect patterns and anomalies indicative of multiple account creation, often more efficiently than manual detection methods.

Cross-Referencing Data

By cross-referencing data from different sources (like payment information, shipping addresses, and contact details), systems can identify links between seemingly separate accounts.

User Reporting

Sometimes, other users can report suspicious activity, which can lead to the discovery of multiple fraudulent accounts.

These methods, often used in combination, help platforms maintain the integrity of their user base and protect against various forms of fraud and abuse associated with multiple account creation.

Is multi-account fraud illegal?

Multi-account fraud, where individuals or entities create multiple accounts for deceptive or malicious purposes, often falls into a legal gray area. Its legality depends on the jurisdiction, the specific actions taken, and the intent behind those actions. Here are some considerations:

Violation of Terms of Service

While not necessarily illegal, multi-account fraud typically violates the terms of service of most online platforms. This can lead to account suspension, banning, or other penalties imposed by the service provider.

Fraudulent Intent

If multi-account creation is used for fraudulent activities, such as scamming, identity theft, financial fraud, or exploiting promotional offers, it can be considered illegal under various fraud and theft statutes.

Regulatory Compliance Issues

In industries like banking or gambling, where regulatory compliance is strict, multi-accounting can lead to legal issues, especially if it involves money laundering or circumventing legal restrictions.

In cases where multi-account fraud is used to pirate content or distribute copyrighted material illegally, it can lead to legal action under intellectual property laws.

Privacy and Data Breach Laws

If creating multiple accounts involves stealing or misusing personal data, it could violate privacy and data protection laws.

Jurisdictional Variations

The legality of multi-account fraud varies significantly from one country to another, with some jurisdictions having more stringent laws and penalties than others.

While the act of creating multiple accounts is not inherently illegal, it often becomes unlawful when used for fraudulent purposes or in ways that violate specific laws or regulations.

What is smurfing?

In the realm of online gambling and bookmakers, this practice, known as "smurfing," allows individuals to engage in arbitrage, exploiting odds differences for guaranteed profits.

Gamers engage in this practice, creating multiple accounts to gain advantages in online games or to bypass game restrictions. And so on and so forth.

Similarly, in the world of affiliate marketing, multi-account fraud manifests as affiliate fraud, where fraudsters create numerous accounts to falsely inflate referral traffic, thereby illicitly earning referral bonuses.

Multi-account fraud involves bad actors creating multiple accounts, often using different names and identities, to gain an unfair advantage or exploit systems.

They frequently employ tools like VPNs and proxies to mask their IP addresses, making it seem as though these accounts are operated by distinct new users from different locations. This makes the fraud harder to detect.

What is crypto multi-account fraud?

Crypto multi-account fraud involves individuals creating numerous accounts, often using false identities, to manipulate cryptocurrency markets or exploit platform-specific features, such as bonuses or referral programs, for illicit financial gain.

In the financial sector, particularly in crypto, multi-account fraud is a serious concern. Bad actors use multiple accounts to manipulate market prices or engage in fraudulent activities, bypassing traditional KYC (Know Your Customer) checks. This is where advanced fraud prevention measures come into play.

Businesses are increasingly implementing robust API-driven solutions that offer real-time monitoring and detection of suspicious activities. These solutions often include liveness detection in their KYC processes, ensuring that the person creating an account is physically present and not a synthetic identity.


Reading and watching about fraud-related happenings across the marketplace, continued training modules, collaborative webinars and thought leadership participation are great ways to stay up-to-date with what other organizations are experiencing and how fraud vendors are responding to emerging threats. 

Overall, multi-account fraud is a multifaceted challenge that requires a dynamic and comprehensive approach to fraud prevention. By employing advanced technologies and maintaining vigilance, businesses can protect themselves from the myriad risks posed by these deceptive practices.

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By Carmen Broder

Carmen has worked with online sellers to take their digital storefronts to the next level since 2015. She's helped sell everything from books, shoes, events, software, and beauty products online. She has a special interest in digital marketing and how software-as-a-service (SaaS) tools fit into the bigger ecommerce picture. You can connect with her on LinkedIn.